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National Internment Camps, Deportation, and Mass Executions


• The Third Reich Deportation. A first radical turning point in defining racial differences of the Gypsies in Germany took place in December 1938 when Heinrich Himmler, Chief of the German Police, ordered the complete profiling of "pure" Gypsies... (Claudio Vercelli)
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• Italy Internment and deportation. However, with Italy’s entry into war, the situation gradually worsened. On September 11, 1940, all the Prefectures in the Kingdom of Italy were ordered to round up Gypsies and hold them in appropriate locations. The entry of foreign Sinti and Roma into Italian territory was strictly forbidden... (Claudio Vercelli)
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• Canpi di internamento e priginia in Italia: 


Historical Documents

• Third Reich, Himmler's guidelines for the resettlement of Gypsies. Berlin, 27 April 1940. In Berenbaum, M. (1997). Witness to the Holocaust. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Copyright © 1997 by Michael Berenbaum.

• Italy, A copy of the telegram no. 63462/10 of the Ministry of the Interior to the prefects and the Quaestor of Rome11 September 1940 (Source: ACS, MI, DGPS, Massime,b. 105, f. Boiano - autorizzazione dell'ACS n. 1080/2013).

• Italy, Concentration Camps in the 4th zone of the Interior Ministry, the establishment of the field of Boiano (CB), 1 October 1940 (Source: ACS, MI, DGPS, Massime, b. 105, f. Boiano - autorizzazione dell'ACS n. 1080/2013).

• Italy,  Telespresso n. 34 / R 3496 of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Ministry of the Interior, Roma extension to the anti-Semitic laws in Germany, 9 April 1942 (Source: ACS, MI, DGPS, DAGR, A 16 Ebrei Stranieri, b. 5, f. Germania - autorizzazione dell'ACS n. 1080/2013).



• Third Reich 1939, September 21: Reinhard Heydrich, head of the RSHA and co-ordinator of the “Final Solution”, holds a meeting/conference in Berlin. 1939 October 17: The RSHA (Main Office for State Security) orders all Gypsies to be profiled and then confined to specific locations from which they are forbidden to move. The same order also contains the names of internment camps for Gypsies, transportation methods and provisioning. 1939, end of October: some hundred “Gypsy fortune tellers”, who Himmler considers a moral threat to the nation, are arrested...

• Italy 1940, August 8: the Ministry of Interior sets the objective of cleansing Italy of Gypsy caravans, considered a danger to public safety and hygiene. 1940 September 11: Arturo Bocchini, Italian Chief of Police, issues a circular ordering that Gypsies living freely be “rounded up” as quickly as possible and concentrated under strict surveillance in a suitable locality in every province”. Italian and foreign Gypsies are commonly targeted for persecution... 

• Other European Countries 1941, April 27: first transport of 500 Gypsies from Zagabria to the Jasenova (Croatia) concentration and extermination camp. 1941: Poland, 5,007 Gypsies are transported to the Lodz ghetto: almost all prisoners die during the winter from typhus fever while, in January of the following year, survivors are transferred to Chelmno and gassed... Continue reading

Further Reading

• Germania:

» Porrajmos – Council of Europe (Ideological Basis – Criminal Police and "Ethnogenetic Registration of Gysies" – The First Deportations and Internment in Collecting Camps – Labour Camps – Mass Executions – The Ghetto Lodz – The "Auschwitz Erlass (Auschwit Decree) – Victims – The Survivors).

» Concentration Camps – Council of Europe (Forced Labour – "Gypsy" camp Lackenback - Ghetto Lodz and Extermination Camp Chelmno – Concentration Camps at Auschwitz-Birkenau – Persecution in German Occupied Territories).

» "Espulsioni dalle scuole"  in Lewy G., "La persecuzione nazista degli zingari", Torino, Einaudi, 2002, pp. 132-33. "Expulsions from the School", in Lewy G., "The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies", Oxford University Press, 2000, pp.89-90.

• Italia:  

» The Nazi Period in Italy – Council of Europe (The Race Question – From Theory to Practice – Internment – The Camp – After the Armistice).

» Bravi L., "La 'questione zingari' nell'Italia fascista. La costruzione culturale di una categoria razziale", in Vitale T., "Politiche possibili. Abitare la città con i rom e i sinti", Carocci, Roma, 2009, pp. 23-29.

» Corbelletto R., "Rom e sinti perseguitati nell'Italia fascista", in l'impegno,XXVIII, n^ 2, pp. 71-91.

» Trevisan P., "Un campo di concentramento per 'zingari' italiani a Prignano sulla Secchia (Modena)", in L'almanacco, n° 55-56, dicembre 2010, pp. 7-30.

» Torre V., Relandini W., Truzzi K., Trevisan P., "Sinti imprigionati a Prignano sulla Secchia (Mo) durante la Seconda Guerra Mondiale", in d'Isola, Sullam, Baldoni, Baldini, Frasanito, "Alla periferia del mondo. Il popolo dei rom e sinti escluso dalla storia", Milano, Fondazione Franceschi, 2003, pp. 33-39.

» Arlati A., "Gli zingari e la Resistenza", in Calendario del popolo, 1997, n° 606, p. 35.

» Link utili:,,

» Boursier G., “Gli Zingari nell'Italia fascista”, in Piasere L., a cura di, "Italia Romanì", n. 1, Roma, 1996, pp. 5-20.

» Boursier G., "Zingari internati durante il Fascismo", in Piasere L., a cura di, "Italia Romanì", n. 2, Roma, 1999, pp. 3-22.

• Altri Paesi europei:  

» Internment in France 1940-1946 - Council of Europe (Identifying "Gipsies" and Tracking their Movements Compulsory Residence Orders for "Nomads" in the Third Reich – Internment in the Unoccupied Zone – Internment in the Occupied Zone – After the Liberation – Daily Life in the Camps – Cases of Deportation from French Internment Camps).

» The Nazi Period in the Baltic States - Council of Europe (A Dichotomous Feature of Persecution – Mobile Killing Units – Latvia – Estonia – Auschwitz-Birkenau).

» Deportations from Romania -  Council of Europe (The Deportation of Itinerant Roma, July-August 1942 - The Deportation of Sedentary Roma Deemed “Undesirable”, September 1942 - The Treatment of the Roma in Transnistria – The Postwar Years and the Treatment of the Roma Deportations in War Crimes Trials – The Future of the Past: The Recognition of Slavery and the Holocaust against Roma).

» Ucraina: Tyaglyy M., "Were the 'Chingené' Victims of the Holocaust? Nazi Policy toward the Crimean Roma, 1941–1944" (The article was originally published in vol. 23, no. 1, spring 2009, of Holocaust and Genocide Studies, a publication of Oxford University Press in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum).

» Territori occupati dal Reich nell'URSS:
Holler M., "'Like Jews?' The Nazi Persecution and Extermination of Soviet Roma Under the German Military Administration: A New Interpretation, Based on Soviet Sources", Dapim: Studies on the Shoah, vol. 24/2010.

» Link utili:





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