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Roslyn Goldofsky was born Ruchla Szarf on March 22, 1929 in Piaski Szlachekie, Poland to Shmuel and Gitla (née Hochmann) Szarf. After Shmuel had died in 1931, Roslyn’s mother took over the family business of a grain refinery and a general store. Roslyn had one older sister and a twin sister.  Piaski Szlachekie did not have a synagogue, but the Jewish population enlisted a Hazzan to come to the town for high holidays.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Joshua Kaufman was born February 20, 1928, in Debrecen, Hungary, as the third of four children in a deeply religious, Hassidic family. The son of a lumber businessman, Joshua survived the ghetto in Debrecen and then the Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi death camp in Poland. He was transferred to Dachau concentration camp in Germany, and spent the last months of the war as a slave laborer building an underground runway for an aircraft factory in Germany. Joshua was liberated by U.S.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Joseph Aleksander (né Josef), son of Abraham and Pola, was born on August 3, 1923, in Warsaw. He had one brother, Joel. Abraham worked as a textile buyer; Pola manufactured corsets. Life quickly changed after the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939. The family was imprisoned in the Warsaw ghetto, where Joseph worked as a forced laborer. He was eventually deported to Majdanek, a concentration camp and killing center in Poland; he was later sent to several other concentration camps before his liberation by the U.S.
Joseph Aleksander / Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Morris Price (né Moishe Prajs), son of Manela and Ida, was born on April 1, 1927, in Wolbrom, Poland. Morris was the youngest of six children – he had two older brothers and three older sisters. Morris grew up in an observant Jewish home and attended public school during the day and cheder (religious school) in the afternoon. After the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, life began to change for the family.  Morris was sent to a work camp, and the Jews of Wolbrom were deported to the Krakow ghetto.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Roman Kent was born Roman Kniker to Emanuel and Sonia Kniker in Lodz, Poland, on April 18, 1929. He had two older sisters and one younger brother. His father owned a textile factory. When walking to the private Jewish school he attended, Roman remembers that non-Jewish children called him and his classmates names and threw stones at them.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020
William (Bill) Harvey (né Vilmos Herskovits), son of Aron and Zali, was born on May 20, 1924, in Berehovo, Czechoslovakia. Aron, a veteran of World War I, was a winemaker; Zali was a dressmaker. William was the youngest of six children; he had one older brother and four older sisters. William grew up in a traditional Jewish family, and he attended synagogue on the High Holidays. In 1943, their hometown was occupied by the Germans and the Herskovits family was forced into a ghetto.
William Harvey / Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Henry Oster was born in Cologne, Germany, on November 5, 1928. In 1941, he was shipped to the Lódz ghetto, where his father died of starvation. In 1943, he was deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau, and soon after to Auschwitz I, where he performed forced labor in a stable. He was liberated in 1945 while imprisoned at Buchenwald camp in Germany. After the war he moved to France, and then joined extended family in Los Angeles, taking the first available ship from Europe to the United States after the war.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Elisabeth Mann (née Mohr), daughter of Josef and Charlotte, was born in December of 1925 in Kecskemét, Hungary. Elisabeth had two brothers and a sister. Josef was a wholesaler and Charlotte helped with the family business. The Orthodox Jewish family kept a kosher home. After the German occupation of Hungary in March of 1944, Jews were forced to wear yellow stars, and the Mohr family was coerced into a ghetto in Kecskemét. They were soon deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Raya Kovensky, daughter of Boris and Bella Wochotinski (née Berliant) was born Raisa Wochotinski on January 30, 1930 in the Free City of Danzig, now the Polish city of Gdańsk. Raya grew up in a conservative Jewish family as the younger of two sisters. Her father worked as a sales representative in the lumber industry; her mother was a housewife.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Hanna Pankowsky, daughter of Sofia (Zofia) and Simon (Zellman) Davidson, was born on September 22, 1928, in Łódź, Poland. Hanna had an older brother, Kazik. Her father owned a prosperous textile wholesale business; her mother was an accomplished artist. Hanna was raised in an assimilated family that focused on secular Judaism. Following the Nazi invasion of Poland in 1939, anti-Jewish measures were imposed.
Hanna Pankowsky / Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Jack Lewin (né Levin), son of Hersch and Dinah, was born on April 13, 1927, in Łódź, Poland. Jack was an only child and grew up in a secular Jewish household. He attended a nonreligious, co-ed, private Yiddish language school at the Medem Shul in Łódź. Jack was a member of SKIF, a socialist Yiddish children’s organization formed by a Yiddish socialist club called The Bund. Within a week of the German invasion of Poland in the fall of 1939, the German army occupied Łódź.
Jack Lewin / Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Elsa Ross, daughter of Mieczyslaw and Halina Szpidbaum (née Zajdenras) was born Eliza Szpidbaum in Warsaw on November 2, 1936. She grew up the graddaughter of a Rabbi in a conservative Jewish family. After the 1939 invasion of the German army, Elsa and her family were imprisoned in the Warsaw ghetto. Elsa then became what was called a “hidden child” and was smuggled out of Warsaw to a Catholic orphanage in the town of Constantine in 1941.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Andre John Holten was born on October 6, 1937, in the city of Hilversum in the Netherlands. His name at birth was Andre Houtkruyer. Sometime around the start of World War II, his family moved in with grandparents in Amsterdam. An only child, Andre remembers that his parents had to wear the Star of David, but he was brought up as a Protestant. He went to a parochial school and stayed with various families. His aunt was instrumental in finding hiding places. He adopted an assumed name, Hans Van Heel.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Pinchas Gutter is a survivor of six German Nazi concentration camps who now lives in Toronto, Canada. He was born in Łódź and was eight years old when the war started. Pinchas, along with his parents and twin sister, fled to Warsaw, where they were confined in the Warsaw ghetto for two and a half years. They were captured in April 1943 and deported to Majdanek death camp in occupied Poland. The Nazis murdered Pinchas's father, mother, and sister upon arrival.
Pinchas Gutter / Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Betty Cohen (née Rebecca Corper), daughter of Levie and Heintga, was born on March 23, 1921, in the Netherlands. She and her two older brothers were raised in a traditional Jewish family. In 1942, two years after Germany invaded the Netherlands, Betty and her parents went into hiding. At one point, there were 22 people – including Betty’s fiancé, Abraham – hiding in one apartment. The hiding place was discovered, and Betty was sent to Westerbork, a transit camp in the Netherlands.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Adolf Deutsch (né Amram), son of Jacob and Mindel, was born on August 8, 1925, in Sighet, Romania. Adolf was one of 11 children; he had five brothers and five sisters. Jacob was a scholar and the family ran a dry goods store. The family struggled to make ends meet; to have pocket change to buy food, Jacob began cutting hair.  When he was 15, Jacob was sent to a Yeshiva (Orthodox school). While he was at the school, a town crier came and said the school would be closed and the students would be sent home.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Edward Mosberg was born January 6, 1926, in Kraków, Poland. He had two sisters, Halina and Karolina. His parents, Bronislawa and Ludwig, owned a department store; they prayed in the Popper synagogue. A little more than a year after World War II broke out in 1939, a ghetto was established in Kraków. Ed’s immediate family, grandparents and aunt settled in one apartment there. Ed brought them food and provided much-needed employee IDs and other papers.
ed mosberg / Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Ella Mandel (née Joskowitz), daughter of Berak and Hela, was born on December 2, 1926, Zdunska Wola, Poland. Ella had two sisters. Even before the Nazi-occupation of Poland in 1939, antisemitism in the town where she attended public school was rampant. When the Germans arrived in Zdunska Wola, the town’s sizable Jewish population was immediately confined to a ghetto. In 1942, the family was forced to move to the Łódź ghetto in Poland. By the time the ghetto was liquidated in 1944, Ella had lost her father and a sister.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Sam Goldofsky, son of Eliahu and Gulcia Goldofski (née Gleitman), was born Szlomo Chaim Goldowski on January 28, 1928 in Bedzin, Poland. He grew up in a conservative Jewish family with two siblings – a brother and sister. Sam attended a public Jewish elementary school and later went on to attend high school, but could not finish as laws were passed forbidding Jews to attend public schools following Germany’s occupation of Poland in 1939. Sam’s father was killed in Auschwitz-Birkenau.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Louise Farkas, daughter of Wolf and Fany Kahan (née Liebowits), was born Louiza Kahan on February 3, 1924, in Sighet, Romania. Louise grew up in a Hasidic Jewish family as the oldest of five children. She attended Hebrew academy and public secondary school in her hometown and frequently helped her father with his business in a bakery. In late 1940, the Transylvania region of Romania was declared a part of Hungary. In April 1944, the family was imprisoned in the Sighet Ghetto.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020
John Adler, son of Charlotte and Salo Adler, was born Hans Gunther Adler on September 17, 1923 in Goldberg, Germany. John grew up in a reform Jewish household and was an only child. John went to a local elementary school, and attended a Jewish middle school after moving to Breslau. As a student, he had academic goals of becoming an artist. On November 9, 1938, John witnessed two synagogues in his town burn to the ground. Following this night, his family knew they needed to make quick decisions about leaving Germany.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Renée Firestone (née Weinfeld), daughter of Mauritius and Julia Weinfeld (née Rosenfeld), was born on April 13, 1924, in Uzhorod, Czechoslovakia. Renée grew up in a non-religious Jewish family with one brother and one sister. Renée’s father had a tailoring and textile business and her mother made women’s hats as a milliner. After the war broke out, the town was annexed into Hungary.
Renee Firestone / Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Eva Schloss is a Holocaust survivor who lives in London, England, and is the posthumous stepsister of diarist Anne Frank. Born Eva Geiringer in Vienna, Austria, to Erich and Fritzi Geiringer in 1929, she had an older brother named Heinz with whom she was very close. Eva’s father, Erich, owned a shoe factory and the Geiringers were an upper-middle-class, nonreligious family. In 1938, Germany annexed Austria in an event known as the Anschluss. Laws against Jews were immediately enacted. Eva’s father fled to Amsterdam in 1939 and the rest of the family joined in 1940.
Eva Schloss / Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Gloria Ungar (née Gitta Nagel), daughter of Absz and Esther, was born on September 9, 1930, in Krosno, Poland. Gloria had three brothers and grew up in an observant Jewish family. After the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, Absz, a businessman, feared the Nazis would target him. It was too dangerous for the family to travel together, so Absz was the first family member to be smuggled out of Poland and into Slovakia. Gloria, her mother, and two of her brothers later followed.
/ Wednesday, September 16, 2020